District Domestic Product – Its’ composition and Trends

Gross District Domestic Product is defined as a measure, in monetary terms, of the volume of all goods and services produced within the boundaries of the District during a given period of time, accounted without duplication. Nabarangpur district occupies the bottom of the list of “Annual Per capita Income” which stands at Rs. 14,700/-.

A new trend has been revealed in Odisha GSDP. The contribution of Agriculture sector has fallen to 33.4% whereas the Services sector contributed the highest i.e. 51.2% to the State’s GSDP. The district-wise analysis of GSDP reveals that among the districts, Sundergarh has the highest percentage share of State’s GSDP with 8.54 percent followed by Khorda 7.52 percent and Deogarh contributed least share of 0.53 percent of GSDP in 2010-11. In 2010- 11, the real per capita net district domestic product at 2004-05 prices was highest for Jharsuguda district and lowest for Nabarangpur district. The District incomes are estimated by way of apportioning the State GSDP among different districts. The Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP) is the single most important tool to measure the economic growth rate of a State.


In real terms there may be much higher income which is actually “Income Accruing” into the district. Since it being difficult to calculate, the Income originating method is followed for calculating DDP in all the states across India. In the context of Nabarangpur, there is migration to other district and also to other states for employment, therefore the income that flows into the district, if added, will make a considerable change.

Wage Payment system and wage rage for different categories of workers.

Most of the people work on their own lands. The non-cultivated class carry on agriculture or agricultural operations by a system of hired labour which generally goes by the name of Goti. The Adivasis do not generally try to labour for a daily wage. In fact in the greater part of the district there is no such thing as labour class who voluntarily offer to work on wages. After independence the system Goti and forced labour etc., has been attempted to be abolished on payment of remuneration for work done in fields, roads and projects etc. The hill ryot will not come forward to work on any day if he has some money, a little over his daily requirement, as the habit of saving against the rainy has not yet been cultivated by him. He is more concerned in the present than in the future. That is why his out turn of labour is very low and so far big Government projects the contractors have to import labour from out side the district.

Although agricultural labour is still being carried on by Goti and Khmbaries still instances of hired labour for agriculture work are not rare. Wage differs from work to work, place to place, time to time. The rate of wages in agriculture is not the same as in road making or stone cutting or in industry. Before the war, labourers engaged in agriculture were generally paid in grain at the rate of 1 to 1 ½ Kunchams of paddy which was equivalent to 3 addas, roughly equivalent to 1 to 2 annas a day.Males are generally employed in ploughing, thrashing, sorting and females on other agricultural operations, the rate of wages for both sexes being the same.

After the war the rate of agricultural wages increased roughly in proportion to the prices of paddy. Up to the year 1960 the average rate of agricultural wages was six annas per female and eight annas per male. After sudden spurt of rise in the paddy price after the Chinese war, this rate has considerably increased during the last two years and the average rate of daily wage per male is now Rs.1.

The State Government have fixed rates of minimum wages in respect of different categories of workers of the scheduled employment under provisions of the minimum wages Act 1948. The rate of agricultural wages as fixed for various categories of operation such as ploghing, harvesting etc. varies from Rs.1 to Rs. 0.75 p. Those employed in roads and buildings ,workers and in stone breaking etc. has been fixed at Rs.0.75p to Rs.2 per day and for non-technical jobs varies non-technical workers it is Rs.1 per day. Violation of the minimum wages fixed under the minimum wages Act was generally common until recently. The District Labour Officer has been posted at Jeypore to look to the working of the Act. in the interiors specially of labourers engaged in agriculture. He is therefore, mainly concentrating on the enforcement of the act on the Industry and on-agriculture fields. The Asst. Labour Officer has joined at Nabarangpur during 1980 for implementation of this Act and rules and the District Labour Officer, Nabarangpur post created from 1994.

In the district, the Goti or the forced labour system was also prevalent connected with the system of agriculture. Goti is a system of labour where by a person on receiving some advance in money or kind or incurring some loan engages himself by a written or oral agreement to labour under its creditor for agriculture and domestic purposes taking advantage of the illiteracy. Ignorance and indebtedness peasantry dictate the terms, calculate the interests and manipulate the annual deductions of wages earned and readjusted the accounts in such a way that number of labourers are bonded for several years. This system thus degenerated in to serfdom. Various attempts were made from time to time from the year 1923, both from Govt. as well as from the estate side to discontinue or to putdown but this continued till independence.

Wage means any economic compensation paid to the employee under some contract to his works for the services rendered by them. Based on the needs of the workers capacity of the employer to pay and the general economic conditions prevailing in a country, the Committee on Fair Wage(1948) and the 15th Session of the Indian Labour Conference(1957) propounded certain wage concepts such as minimum wage, fair wage, living wages and needbased minimum wage.

Standard of Living

Standard of living refers to the level of wealth, comfort, material goods and necessities available to a certain socioeconomic class in a certain geographic area. The standard of living includes factors such as income, quality and availability of employment, class disparity, poverty rate, quality and affordability of housing, people, hours of work required to purchase necessities, gross domestic product, inflation rate, number of holiday days per year, affordable (or free) access to quality healthcare, quality and availability of education, life expectancy, incidence of disease, cost of goods and services, infrastructure, national economic growth, economic and political stability, political and religious freedom, environmental quality, climate and safety. The standard of living is closely related to quality of life.

Standard of living is generally measured by standards such as real (i.e. inflation adjusted) income per person and poverty rate. Other measures such as access and quality of health care, income growth inequality, and educational standards are also used. Examples are access to certain goods (such as number of refrigerators per 1000 people), or measures of health such as life expectancy. It is the ease by which people living in a time or place are able to satisfy their needs and/or wants

Nabarangpur has an annual per-capita income of 14,700 and occupies the bottom of the list of districts in Odisha, whereas the State’s per-capita income is Rs. 28,384 which is much less than the national figure of Rs 39,904. The state of Odisha is passing through a transitional phase. The economy is also is in transition from Agro-based to Industry based economy. As per the the Economic Survey of Odisha 2014-15 there are 82 units of MSME in Nabarangpur with an investment of Rs. 13.29 crores and generating employment to 657 (out of these 216 are women). The district of Nabarangpur needs to shift the goalpost and encourage industries particularly under MSME, as the resources for any heavy industry are very lean. Nabarangpur has annual growth rate of 6.4% (2008-09) and per-capita Real NDDP of 58 (2008-09). Odisha has also achieved in attracting impressive FDI which was Rs. 53,000 crores till 2011-12, but Nabarangpur district is still looking for a big industry which can boost its economy and address the issues of employment.

“Unemployment is painful while employment is for prosperity .”

The District Employment Exchange is the nodal govt. agency to look after the promotion on employment opportunities in the District . Prior to 2012 the agency was under the ministry of L&E Govt. of Odisha. But in 2012 the Govt. created a separate department namely ETE&T containing the Directorate of Employment & Directorate of technical education under the ministry of ETE& T , GoI , Bhubaneswar.

Prior to District Divisions this Employment Office, Nabarangpur was Employment sub Office under the control of District Employment Exchange, Koraput. Thereafter the District gets its separate identity of District Employment Exchange, Nabarangpur which was created on 06.10.93 with independent functioning of District Employment Exchange, Nabarangpur since then

The District Employment Exchange, Nabarangpur covers the entire Revenue District of Nabarangpur comprising 10 Blocks and 169 GPs all over the District . The District Employment Exchange, Nabarangpur has two sub Offices one at Umerkote and another at Khatiguda.

The Umerkote sub-office comprises 4 Blocks namely Raighar, Chandahandi, Jharigaon and Umerkote. Similarly the ESO khatiguda covers only Tentulikhunti Block. The rest five Blocks namely Nabarangpur, Papadahandi, Dabugaon, Kosagumuda and Nandahandi comes under the Jurisdiction of District Employment Exchange, Nabarangpur . Presently the ESO khatiguda is closed due to shortages of staff but the ESO umerkote is under operation.

Employment situation of the District Nabarangpur .

The District is predominantly an agricultural District with almost no industrial base of its own. Barring Mangalam Timbers no large scale industrial unit is existed in the District. The District has low capacity to absorb the growing labour force in the industrial sector. Similarly the growth in the service sector is slow and tardy which accounts for no absorption for growing labour force. From 2005-06 to 2009-10 various skill based training programmes were introduced with a view of self-employment Counselling camps were organised to provide finance to self-employed the youth through bank linkages.