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History

Pre-History, Proto History and Early Historical perspective of the district.

Pre-History:

Unlike other Districts of Odisha state the pre-History of the Nabarangpur district is not known, proper scientific study is yet to be done to know the pre history of this region.

The geographical setting of the Nabarangpur district has made this region to large extent isolated from the plain coastal districts like Balesore, Cuttack and Puri. This isolation made the original inhabitants of this region to preservative their some of the manners, life style, customs and tradition till today.

Almost all the tribals such as Gond, Bhatra, Halba, Banjara, Kandha and others who constitute a bulk of population of the district speaking either histories or the Dravidian tongues, are the original people of this region since very old times. They have their own culture and ethnic values. But after the advent of foreign rule, the role of local chieftains, feudal lords, they accepted some norms of modern life and some discernible changes are occurred in them. The cultural and administrative contacts after independence became rapid and they become the part of the main stream civilization.

Except the rites and rituals of these tribals, the pre-history of this region is not very limited. It is said by the historians that the literary and epigraphic sources refer to a land mass known as atavi and the people were termed as atavikas (the forest dwellers) during the 3rd and 4th century B.C.Towards the 3rd century B.C the land mass known as kantar of mahakantar was ruled by one Byaghraja and the area of kantar was spread from the central province the foothilll of the vindyas in the north to Indravati in the south. Kantar or Mahakantar (great, dense forest.)Kingdom, this must have composed the present kalahandi, Nabarangpur, Koraput of odisha state and Bastar region of Chhattisgarh state.

The proposed modern regions of the Nabarangpur district for identification with Atavi or Mahakantar needs deep study and scientific revealers.

The study of ancient writiangs,pal-eolithic study of the earlier period of the stone age when people made stone weapons and tools neo-litchi study of the latest period of the store age, the study of paleontology (study of fossils)about 10,000 years ago and when people of this district began to settle in the villages, grow crops, keep animals,polisi stores for tools and used the wheels the pre-history of this district will come into light .proper study of megalithic of Neolithic evidences will throw some light of the pre-history on the district.

The in-depth study of the burial rites and rituals of the original people, preserving the memory of the dead and secondly offering a seat for some deity should be made to know the pre and proto history of the district.

Early historical perspective of the Nabarangpur district can be a scribed (may be attributed to the discoveries of archeological evidences, coins, cooper plates etc. important antiquities, of this district, which were reflected in Epigraphic India vole xxiv,vol-xix, the madras Epigraphic report for the year 1921-22,inscriptions of central province and beral to know the early history of the Nabarangpur district.

Early Historical Perspective of the district:

The territory comprising the modern district of Nabarangpur into her hills and river systems, forests and habitats was the part of the ancient atavik land (land of dense forests) as referred by Ashoka, the emperor of Magadha in his special rock edicts(261 B.C).in fact rock edits-xiii and M.R.E-ii of Ashok use it in the sense of people living in the boarder forest land of kalinga. Historians like S.N Rajguru, A.C Mittal and N.K Sahu identity the atavi or Atavikas in pre-christian periods with the forest kingdoms nestled on the boarders of kalinga that is the tel and the Indravati valley.

Atavikas:

The people of Atavi or Atavika rajya were brave and a great source of strength of kalinga in the 3rd century B.C. These people were not conquered by Ashok for their ferociousness and war like attitude; Ashok treaded them as his allies.

Very little is known about the history of this region after Ashoka till the rise of Mahameghabahan Kharvel. Atavik region became an important part of his empire. This region is referred to as the “invincible vidyadhar region” . In the hatigumpha inscription of Kharvel. Then the history of this region fed into oblivion.

Systematic chronicling of potential historical data of the Nabarangpur district is not seriously done. As It is a recent phenomena, some historians start the process of probe using materials of original and collateral resources like literature, epigraphy, iconology, numismatics, architecture and archeology particularly on the field studies surveys and excavations in podagada sights (23kms from Umerkote, Nabarangpur district).during (290-300AD) kautar the kingdom in which the Nabarangpur was a part was ruled by the Nala dynastic found by sisuka.

District under Various dynasties:

As the recent Nabarangpur district once was the part of ataxic and kantar kingdom in the 4th and 3rd century B.C it is penitent to know the history of the district under various dynasties since 4th century B.C to till today.

District under the satabahans:

The Nasith inscription of vasisthaputra pulumavie (circa-149A.D) indicates the existence of this region. Which was under Gouthamputra satakarni (Cir106 to 130 A.D) from (Cir 130-159) vasib sitaputra pulumahi ruled over the territory. From (eir 159 to 174 A.D) the ruler of the territory is not known. The great king of satabahanas dynasty sri yaga satakarni was the ruler of this region from 174A.D to 202A.D but there is no historical evidence of his hold over Nabarangpur territory.

The Ikshvkus:

In the 3rd century A.D the satabahanas power diclanied and the Koraput region of which Nabarangpur was a part passed to Ikshvkus dynasty sri santomula the founder of Ikshvkus power won extensive territories by Digvilaya. His son and successor of mathariputra sri Virapurush datta the greatest minaret of this dynasty ruled over Koraput region.

The Vakatakas:

By the middle of the 3rd century AD Vindyasakti, the founder of the vakatak dynasty succeeded in extending his kingdom from Malaya to Vidarbha. His son pravarsen 1, the successor of Vindyasakti conquered the eastern and north eastern region very likely brought Bastar -Koraput area to Vakatak dominion.

But the Koraput region was not under the Vakatakas at the time of Samudragupta as campaign in cer -350AD. By that line Koraput region was forming the part of the Mahakantha of territory was their ruled by a king named Vyagkraraj .This Mahakantha territory is very likely the same as the lord of Mahavan (From Nagaraju Konda inspription).Probably the Koraput region was not under the rule of the Guptas.The emevgence of Saivision and Vaishnavism in the inaccessible region of Koraput (Including Nabarangpur) may be ascribed to the influence of the Gupta-Vakatak culture.

The Nalas:

In the 4th – 5th century A.D the Nalas rose to prominence with their capital metropolis at puskari in modern Umerkote tahsil of Nabarangpur District. The Nalas ruled over the Bastor –Koraput region including Nabarangpur.

The rule of the Nala dynasty was the glorious chapter of the Nabarngpur district which reflects the political history of this area under the rule of Bhabadattaburman (435 AD-465 AD)Arthas Patiraja(c-465-480) and Skaadavarman (c-480-515).

Bhabadatta Varman (c-435-465 AD):

From the available records, archialogical evidence ruins, icons, nureismatic proves, we get a transparent or clear picturessof the Nala rulers of their prosperous region ,which is full of activities,achievements both political and cultural.

Bhabadatta Varman a son and success of Vasahraj perhaps laid a strong trandation of the Nala kingdom. Bhabadatta Varman is known form the Podagada store inscription Rithapur grant issued from Nanda Vardban. The Podagada stone inscription of Skanda Varman (2nd son of Bhabadatta Varman) throws light of Bhabadatta Varman.He had a glorious eventful region of some 30 years.

The original capital of the Nalas was puskari (a place of blooming puskars(lotus) is ponds and tanks surrounding the capital city) i.e modern Podagada (Altekar-op-ci P.114) and apparently Bhabadatta Varman ruled from this place, till he shifted to Nandi Vardhan. His queens name was Achali Bhattanika (Rathapur grant)

“Mama chachapi (pi)(Achali) Bhattarickasya/Damptya (Dampya) tasya vamala manu pruhatyani,”(Epigraphic Indai- vol-XIX,P.202).She was the chief queen of Maharaja Bhabadatta Varman.

His royal title was “Maheswar mahasenati srista rajya Vibhavah/Nalanrupa vansa prasutah/Tripathakadhvajah sir Maharaja Bhabadatta Varman”.The king was a devout worshiper of siva and Kalikey.

(Finding of number of siva temples/ lings in the 5 km radius of Padagada fort till amply proves his religious faith.)

Bhabadatta Varman was a great administrator an invincible worrier, he had a beautiful capital at Puskari which was evident from the ruins of Padagada a well fortified city well planned with temple and orchards and gardens. The present “Bhandariguda” GP, the name of ancient Puskari bears the illustrious name of Bhabadatta Varman.

The Puskari, ON the Bank of Singari rivulet (the perennial water source) might have been a wonderful city of his age.

Arthapati (c-465-480):

Maharaja Arthapati Bhattaraka succeeded his father Bhavadata Varaman in 465 AD and ruled up to 480 Ad. He ruled in the territory of original Nala rule from capital Puskari. The Keshari beda grants we come to know that he was a great king.Sri Arthapati Maharaja Bhattaraka”. He donated the village, the Keselaka gram (Kesharbeda) in his 7th regal year to Durgatya, Ravivarya, Ravidaftarya and Matrarya of Kautsasa gotra. (Kesaribeda is in Umerkote tahasil of the Nabarangpur District). The site of Kesaribeda is full of relies and ruins with a very old tank per fobs of the 5th century AD. From the Podagada stone inscription it is known that as Arthapati repailed and repopulated the deva staled city of Puskari. In the year 480 AD he was defeated by the mighty Vakatak king Pritfisen. Like his father he was also an able administrator with a benevolent disposition. Sanskrit was his court language. He was a great patron of learning and literature.

Skanda varman (cir-480 AD- 515 AD):

Skanda varman, the second son of Bhave dattavarman ascended the throne in year 480Ad at Paskari. He repulsed the vakatak arraign, retrieve the lost territory of his ancestor and repopulate the city of Puskar. He was a great warrior of his time. Skanda karma is known to us from his Podagada stone inscription (E.I.XIXPP 153-57). The grant has been issued in his 12 the regional year (cir-492 A.D) from his capital. It consists of 13 verses composed in Anustuppa ethanda (E.I.XIXPP.153-157).He was a great Vaishnvite. He founded of a foot print (Padamala) of Vishnu and donated some holdings to chakradrone for the maintenance of the temple.

Skanda varman enhanced the glory of his father Bhabadatta Varman. In his reign he pursued the worship of Vishnu and also Shiva. The icons/stone, images found from the ruins of the Padagada and the 13 users of the stone inscription clearly mentions that , “this print or century was made3 by the illustrious king Skanda Varman, the noble son of king Bhabadatta Varman, who was the foremost scion of the glorious Nala family and repelled his enemies by his valor , on having reclaimed the lost royal prosperity ,which had fallen into others hand or was unsettled and having repeopled the deserted (Sunya) town of Puskari, with the hope of obtaining religious merit for his father, other ancestors and mother and desiring welfare for himself.”(Epigraphic India – vol-XXI-PP 153-157).

With the death of Skanda Varman in the year 515 AD, the glorious chapter of Puskari domination come to an end, and the successor of Skanda Varman were vanquished by Chalukya Kirtivarman.

The Mathars:

After the decline of the Nalas for sometime Koraput region was under the sway of the Mothers dynasty. The earliest Mathars king was Visakha Varman. The last ruler of the Mathars dynasty was Nanda Pravanjan Varman who ruled over the Koraput region till he was overthrown by the Eastern Gangs about 498 AD.

The Eastern Gangs:

Not much is known about the ruling of the Eastern Gangs over the Bastar Koraput region.

The Somavaxsis:

In the year 9th century AD trikaling under the rule of Somavaxsis king Mahavaba Gupta Janmajaya I extended his territory up to Bastar, Koraput region (in the Nabarangpur area).His successor Janmajaya2,Puranjay and Karnadas were weak kings, so in the year 1023AD, the Tamoas Chloa king Rajendra Chola occupied the Bastar Koraput region,these known as Chakrakote. His victory of this territory was short lived. After his withdrawal from this area the Gang king Vajrahasta V, claimed his sovereignty over this territory assuming the family life “Thrikalingadhipati”. The gang ruled up to 1305 AD.

The Chhidak Nagas:

During the interregnum of the Gangas and Kalehuri King over the domain of Trikalinga territory, the Bastar-Koraput region under weat a political changes. The Naga dynasty had already occupied these regions as early as 1023 AD (Hiralal : inscription of cp and Beraf,P-166).

The Errakote inscription dated 1023 AD refers to the Naga king Nrupati Bhusan the earliest king of the Chhiadak Nagas in chakrakote roughly wrsisting of Bastar- Koraput region. Some war was the last king of the Chhiadak Nagas.After him sons of his family continued to rule in the Bastar Koraput region during the 13 century AD. A king named jagadeva Bhusan Narasingha was ruling over this region during 1218-1224 AD (Epigraphic India Vol X-P40/1BID Jatanpal and Danteswar Inscription).

The Matsya Family: By the middle of the 13 century AD the Chhiadak Nagas dominion passed on to the foads of the Matsya family. The family may have ruled the Bastar Koraput region for sometimes.

The Silavamsis:

The Silavamsis of Nandapur were a branch of famous Silavamsis who ruled over the Vindya tract from their capital at Nandi Bardhan (22 miles North West from Nagpur).Three generation of this dynasty rule in Nandapur region. King Gang Raja (Middle of the 14 century AD).His son Viswanath Raja alias Bhairab Raja and Pratap Ganga Raja were the rulers. According to Bidyadhar singh Deos Nandapur forsaken Kingdom.Their territory extends to the north of up to Budha kalinga in the present Kalahandi district on the south up to Kambamottu in the Malkangiri area, in the west up to Bhaskar (Bhaskel River) in the Umerkote area and in the east up to chicacole Nagar. So the Silavamsis ruled in Nabaragnpur area for a century or so.

The Suryavansa: (The solar dynasty):

The last king of the Silavansa of Nandapur was Pratap Ganga Raja, after his death he was succeeds by one Vinayak Deo, who founded the solar dynasty.

The suryavansa ruled the dominion of Nandapur kingdom till the end of the British period. The Nandapur kingdom spread to a vast execute of area including the recent Nabarangpur region.

The family chronicles, various copper plate granted by earlier Rajas, references made by Ferista, the Mahamedan historian of the Kutabsati sultans of Golkonda, we know the genealogy of the suryavansi kings who ruled from 1443 AD to 1947 AD.The family chronicles gives the following dates for the founded of the Suryavansa cine and his successor:-

Vinayak Deo -1443-76

His son Vinaya Chandra Deo -1476-1510

His son Bhairab Deo -1510-27

His son Viswanath Deo -1527-71

His son Balaram DEo -1571-97

His son Yasvanta Deo -1597-1637

His son Virvikram Deo -1637-69

His son Krisna Deo -1669-72

His son Biswambar Deo 1 -1672-76

His brother Mallikamardhan krisna rao -1676-81

His brother Hari Deo -1681-84

His brother Balaram Deo2 -1684-86

His adopted son Raghunath krisna Deo -1686-1708

His son Ramchandra Deo1 -1708-11

His Brother Balaram Deo3 -1711-13

His Brother Biswambar Deo2 -1713-52

His step Brother Lalakrisna Deo -1752-58

His brother Bikram Deo1 -1758-81

His son Ramchandra Deo2 -1781-1825 From the time of Ramachandra Deo2 there is contemporary historical record of the history of the Jeypore states the northern part of which is the recent Nabarangpur region. The kings of the Suryavansa ruled for nearly (1443 AD-1947 AD) 500years. By their rule Nabarangpur develop and nourished as a part of the kingdom.

Muslim Occupation:

When the Nandapur kingdom was ruled by the suryavansi king Viswanath Deo by the end of his rule he saw Muslim invasion to his kingdom. He breathed his last in 1571 A.D and his son Balaam Deo succeeded him but was defeated by Rullfat Khan, The lieutent of Ibrahim qutab shah the sultan, of Golconda and agreed to pay tributes to the sultan of goal ganda and his name entered into jamu Kashmir.with Balaram Deo the nandapur kingdom came under muslim occupation. So the northern corners were completely under the sway of the quth saffis. The nandapur kingdom came under the fauzdar of chicacole .The suryavansi kings paid tribute to the sultan of goalconda an account of rs 24 thosands per annum. Ruled Jeypore estate till is the estate is taken over by the British government. Through the recent Nabarangpur was the part of the Jeypore estate. The region never encountered in to the direct onslaught of the Muslims, but ruled but the suryavansi king.

Anglo-French Conflict:

After the death of Aurangajeb in 1707 AD the subedar of Deccan became independent. He appointed Anwaruddin as the fauzdar of chicacole. In the political turmoil difference declared Salabatjung ,the third son of Asaf Jha as the nizam and obtained four northern areas under chicacola circle in 1753. But the discontented fauzadar of chicola JatarAli resisted the French occupation of chicole but was defeated by the franc. After the death of Vijayram Raja the Galati of Vijaynagaram, his son Ananda Raju a great enemy of the French revolution against the French supremacy and invited the English to help him. Lord Clive immediately sent. Forde by sea who regained Visakhapatnam and help Ananda Raja. After the Rajahmundry battle on the 9th dec 1757.salabati Jung the Nabab of Hyderabad deserted the French and the English restored that authority over the northern sir car.

In 1765 the Mughal Emperor of Delhi Saha alam granted the Northen circle to Robert Clive along into the Dewani of Bihar, Bengal and Orissa to the East India Company by a firmer. Through the northern circle came under the British Jeypore (EState revised out side the sphere of the British administration till 1865).Almost a century close before they directly administer the Jeypore estate. So Nabarangpur also as the part of the Jeypore state spread the British rule up to the said date.

Brithish Occupation:

A conflict arose between the kings Vijayaram Raju, the king of Vijaynagaram successor and the king of Jeypore regarding the Jeypore territory in the year 1768 under an alleged patta granted in 1752 by Salabetijung, the subedar of Deccan. The patta recorded the grant of the villagers- kasipuram, nandapuram and Madgal by way of jagir to Raja Vijayaram Raju on an annual payment of Rs.24, 0000. The Jeypore Maharaja Vikram Deo refuted the claim of the Vijaya nagaram king and sends his agent Jagannath patra to Vizagpatanam to get support of the British authority. But the British supported the claim of the king of the Vijayanagaram ,This action of the British made some disaffected clients and Zamindars to revolt against the Vijayanagaram king. In 1773 the Jeypore king Bikram Deo gathered a strong force and 2000 martha horses to fight against the vijayanagaram king at Rayagada Valley. Taking the advantages of this disturbance the British first asseted their authority over the hill tracks of Jeypore.

Captain Richard Mathews, the then commander of Northern circle was sent by the east India Company to march to hill country Jeypore with a company of Sibbandis of the Raja of Vijayanagaram. Caption Mathews took the possession the Rayagada on 15.01.1775 .He possessed the past of Narayanpatna .Braving the shift resistance by the troops of the Jeypore king, captain Mathews reached Jeypore, the capital of the Suryavans kings with his army. He designed the Jeypore fort in the last week of February -1775 and defeated the Maratha troop of the Vikram Deo. The king Vikram Deo surrenders to captain Mathews. The fort was ruined by the British troop. As a result of this campaign, the Jeypore territory was completely occupied and subjugated by the British.

The Madras Government appointed a committee of the circle in 1776 to study the revenue system of the northern circle. When in the year 1784 the Madras government came to know the oppression of the Vijayanagaram dewan Sitaram Raju and malad instruction of the chief of the council of vizagpatam, the government condoned such act and separated the Jeypore Zamindar.Independent of Vijayanagaram seeing such action of the British the king of vijayanagarm rose against then and a pitched battle was fought at Padmanavam in which the king of vijayanagaram was defeated and killed by Lt.Col.Prendargast. At this juncture the king of Jeypore Ramachandra Deo2 kept himself aloof from this situation and did at support the king of Vijayanagaram .The British seeing the neutrality of the Jeypore king granted him a permanent sauanda for Jeypore for an annual tribute of Rs.25000/-. In 1802-03 permanent settelement was attached throughout the Vizagpatam district and Ramachandra Deo accepted the settlement and got his Peshkash reduced to Rs .16000/-.

On 10th July 1855, the Madras Govt. authorized the British agent to assume the control of both policy and revenue of the hill tracts of Jeypore estate. The old maharaja Vikram Deo died on 10 August 1860 and his son Ramachandra Deo from the ,then three British agent proposed to located assistant agent together with all assistants superintendent of police at Jeypore ,which was sanctioned by the govt.

With the assumption of the direct administration of the Jeypore estate ,four sub-magistrate were placed at Jeypore, Nabarangpur (Nawarangpur), Mahadeoput and Aurade.

In this way the recent Nabarangpur region came under the British rule and sub-magistrate looked after the police and revenue of this area since 1860 to onwards.

Before such arrangement (the Nabarangpur district of 1992), the Nabarangpur region was a thana under the Jeypore estate. In the year 1820, Raja Ramachandra Deo 2 (1781-1825) granted Nabarangpur Thana as a grant to his brother Jagannath Deo (second son of Vikram Deo) to look after the area. Jagannath Deos son Krishna Deo, succed this father and ruled. This region from 1814 to 1843 krisna Doe, bring issueless, son of Narasingha Deo(3rd son of Vikram Deo1), Chaitanaya Deo managed Nabarangpur region as a ruler from 1843-1876 AD, a stint of 33years.He was a great ruler of Nabarangpur, a benevolent , peace loving king, who erected temples, and tanks and ponds and tapes in every villages. He was a man of culture and one of the best king of all the suryavansi kings. From 1876, Nabarangpur was ruled by the queen up to 1911.Then the Nabarangpur thauf merged in the jeypore estate according to the verdict of the Madras Government in the year 1912 A.D.

(Source: The Vinsasatadir Nabarangpur,Gopabandhu Beosoyi-1914)

Evolution of Modern Nabarangpur:

In the year due to constant demands and representation, the British govt. in England passed an act in the year 1935 to create a separate province of Odisha. In 1936 Odisha became a spate state. Nabarangpur was incorporated in New Koraput district as a sub-division. The state was constituted according to the Board my Commission Report of 1932 up to 1962, Nabarangpur was the largest sub- division of the Koraput district.

On 2nd October 1992, on the auspicious day of Mahatma Gandhis birthday, the government of Odisha declared Nabarangpur as an independent district. it is carved out of the Koraput district.Sri.T.ramachandrudu IAS appointed as the first collector of the new district.

NOTE:

The entire text of this chapter is prepared basing or the secondary sources of books, periodicals and journals. The prominent books are.

1. Gazetteer of the Koraput district :RS Bell-1945.

2. Koraput gazetteer by Nilamani Senapati /Nabin kumar Sahu,govt of odisha-1966.

3. Dynastic history of nalas by chandrabhanu patel,preeti pustak,Calcutta-1990.

4. Vinsasatabaina Nabarangpur by gopabandhu bissoyi,Nabarangpur-2014.

5. Hand books of Nabarangpur -2001, 2009 govt of odisha.

Uprisings and the freedom movements in the district:

In the annals of India, the uprising of the natives against an alive role and local rulers for the better livelihood. Freedom and social welfare have many instances, so the uprisings of the natives and non tribals as well against the British rule and the atrocities committed by the royal family and their followers bore a bright testimony and the Nabarangpur district is no exception to it.

The Nabarangpur district have experienced the uprisings of the tribals and non-tribals in the 4th decade of the 20th century .the struggles have many faceted dimensions .these struggles were basically economical struggles against the non tribal money lauders, traders, amenders, administrators who tried to exploit the tribal way of life and people of the lower strata of the society. During this period 1940 to 1947AD, the natives of the Nabarangpur district joined the groups of led by Indian national congress taking up specific issues and struggles launched by Mahatma Gandhi and his followers.

During the British rule the policing and revenue acts of the madras government was strictly imposed upon the local people of the Nabarangpur district. There has been an increasing enhancement on tribal people hills and plains and oppressions of the tribal by the aliens. The aliens or non tribals like inamdars, mokkasadars, brukots, gountias naiks, chalans, gaudas, land lords, merchants.,

Money lenders and the zamindars agent and government officials jeopardized the life style of the local natives of the Nabarangpur district ,than the region is under the rule of the suryavansis of the Jeypore estate, so they rose against these system who were exploiting the natives economic resources including their land, labor and forests.

The evil system of bethi goti, supply and gadam broke the backbones of the native peasents and people of this district. arson, loot, ropes were common agenda of the police people, the harsa treatment of the revenue official in exacting taxes of different nature.the atrocities committed by the village head men agent of the kings argumented the uprisings of the people of this district ,under the agencies of the Indian national congress ,the cried call of mahatma Gandhi for freedom movement. Created such an upheaval in this district that the rulers lost their sleeps.

The historical background of the freedom movement of this district its organization, development and the cherished goal to achieve the positive result is attributed to the great leaders of the Indian national congress of this district named Radha Krishna Biswasray, Sadasiva Tripathy,Laxmichandra Das, Radhamohan Sahu, Annaji Rao, Md. Baji, Ananda Behera, Rabisingh Majhi, Sanu Majhi and lots of others.

The Indian National congress became more active and aggressive to augment the spirit of freedom movement in this area .People of this district following the instruction of INC of the country and state, collected thousands of four anna congress members from this district. By the end of 1939 there were 26,900 four anna members, who were ready to fight none violently against the rulers internal administration.

The Indian national congress demanded the full independence of India in its lucknow convention on 01.04.1936 and took an unanimous decision not to support the imperial power in any means, the decision was meant for the British govt. When the 2nd world war began on 01.09.1939, Germany attacked Poland on 03.09.1939. England declared war against Germany being a part of the allied power. As India was the vassal state of England by that time the war time Prime Minister of England William Winston churil, ordered the victory of India to collect man power from India to fight the war and collect war fund to meet the war expenditure from the Indian people. Mahatma Gandhi resented the proposal of the British govt. and the Indian National Congress passed a regulation on 10.10.1939 not to support the British in the war and decided to protest through personal Satyagraha. Gandhi appealed the congress people to court jail voluntarily declaring not to give man or money to the British govt. and support the war.obying Gandhis appeal congress leaders of hundreds of them courted jail, the Nabarangpur was no exception to it.

First satyagraha of the Nabarangpur region:

As per the decision of the district congress committee, Koraput, 110 freedom fighter court jail declaring that, “It is a sin to help Radhakrishan Biswasray and Radhamohan Sahu.

On 14th July 1942, Quit India resolution was passed by the working committee of the Indian National congress. The call of Quit India and “Do or Die” by Mahatma Gandhi spread all over India like wild fire, Nabarangpur region also responded the call whole heartedly. Meeting was organizing in every nook and corner of Nabarangpur region. Thousand of pamphlets distributed all over the Nabarangpur region regarding congress movement and peoples participation in it.

On 11.08.1942 Sadasiva Tripathy was again arrested from Nabarangpur town for August movement of 1942 along with all the forat class congress leaders. Repression started by the govt. On 13.08.1942 the congress office of the Nabarangpur forcibly closed by police. Police confiscated all the belongs of the office congress office was sealed. On that day G Annaji Rao, the Nabarangpur congress committee president organized a great procession on the protestation of the government action, in the everything of 13.08.1642, G. Annaji Roa, Sadananda mohanty, Raghunath choudhury and Anauda Behera, the eminent congress leader were arrested.

Gouramaguda- the pioneer of the freedom movement:

Gummaguda a small village 9 k.ms of the sub-divisional headquarters Nabarangpur near Taragam organized a meeting for quit- India movement under the leadership of the congress leader Madhab Pradhani of the Baghsiuni village.. On 17.08.1942 another meeting was held on 19.08.1942 nearly 200 congress workers broke the wooden bridge of the Gauta River. Some to block the road of Nabarangpur –Papadahandi cut hundreds of trees from the reserve forest.

The British Government with Men Power or Money.

The Sub-Divisional Congress Committee of Nabarangpur decided that SadasivaTripathy, the president of the same committee should be the first Satyagrahi to protest the Government to conscript the people forward and exact money to accumulate war fund. The prominent congress leader of the Nabarangpur Congress Committee wrote the incident in his personal diary, “Personal Satyagraha -1939 the world war began. There was a German in the Nabarangpur Church. He was arrested .A list of Satyagrahies was sent. At first the MLAs should do Satyagrah, so SadasivaBabu, Biswasroybabu and RadhamohanBabu joined the Satyagrah and were arrested .SadasivaBabu from his house started on foot to attend the meeting to be held in Dharmasala total (A mango grove named Dharamsala) .when he reached near the grocery shop of mine, he was offered a glass of molasses sarbat. He was garlanded by the congress members. SadasivaBabu declared in the meeting that it is a sin to help the War “Police arrested him than and there. By that time I told him,” come with Swarja and he smiled a little( refer Biplab LaxmichandraDashbySubash Chandra Mishra PP.77-78)

Then, the Congress members of different primary congress committees joined the Satyagrah and awarded 4 to 6 months of imprisonment by the then Deputy Magistrate Somnath Mishra. Among these Satyagrahies Laxmi Chandra Das Simanchal Behera, AurandaBehera , SonuMajhii, Md.Baji, Rabi SinghMajhi and others actively participated and the Nabarangpur created a history in this regard.

Quit India Movement and the course of events in the Nabarangpur region.

SadasivaTripathy was arrested and sent to Central Jail, Berhampur for Satyagrah and released in the month of June Day along with police was informed about the incident. 32 Congress workers were arrested as per case No.122/42 (SR Case No.49/42) with IPC Section 143,149 and 431.

Dtd.20.08.1943 under the leadership of SonuMajhi, the Congress leader of Kasabandha Village of Dabugam nearly 700 Congress workers broke the Sadaguda wooden bridge and blocked the road leading to Umerkote . SanuMajhi and others were arrested on the same day as per IPC U/s 147,426, and 427. Hundreds of the Freedom Fighter was beaten black and blue by the order of the Nabarangpur Sub Divisional Magistrate.

The entire regional congress leader was taken in to police custody as a precautionary measure by the British Government. According to Quit India Movement Congress decided to Gherao all the thanas to protest the Govenment sarbritrary action. So it was decided to arrest Lakshmichandra Das, the flamboyant Congress leader of Nabarangpur as per case No 21/42 and 34/42 of Debug then a U/s 109, 147 and 431 of IPC, because his speech and work may create much disturbance. Then the SDO of Nabarangpur P.K.Tripathy ordered his arrest. On 20.08.1942, Lakshmichandra Das was arrested and was kept in a temporary Jail of Nabarangpur as a under trial prisoner from 20.08.1943 and 21.12.1942.

The Nabarangpur region, as a Sub-division of the Koraput district played a prominent role in the freedom struggle between 1939-42. When Mahatma Gandhi declared Quit India Movement and Do or Die Mantra in the Bombay Convention of the Indian National Congress on 8th August 1942, the call never be rated all over india. Number of freedom fighters were arrested or the 9th August 1942.

As per previous decision of the Koraput District Congress Committee.Mathili the Thana was generated of the 21st August 1942 (Friday) at 2.00PM under the leadership of LakshmanNayak of Tentuliguda village. There was great commotion on that day. Where the freedom fighters moved towards Mathili Thana. The check and control the procession of the Freedom Fighters, the Police Station Officer JagarnathKalu Dora warned not to enter the Thana, but when the procession did at pay any attention to this working and marched onward the thana, seeing the rush of the mob, the then Deputy Magistrate who was present there ordered firing at the Freedom Fighter to dispense then by the force, the result of which was the death of five freedom fighters on spot by bullet wound. The Freedom fighters who braved the Police force and became the martyrs were: NakulMadakani of Saragiguda. B.C.Nayak of Samara village LingaBhumia of Timasguda, ArjunKotia of Kukudaguda, NarasingaDomb of Nuaguda Somara Nayak of Mangariguda, GopiPujari of Sangumma,Gurukutia of Tiwasput Balram Bhumia of Temrupali. Many more were wounded by lathi charge. LakshmanNayak was beaten till he fell flat unconscious on the ground by a rifle but and when he was senseless, the Police thinking him dead, throw him into a nearby stream covered with dense bamboo forest.

( source -Saheed LakshmanNayak by Dasrathi Nanda 8th edition 1999)

After three days of Mathili firing the same was repeated at papadahandi of Nabarangpur Sub Division.

The Turi River Massacre at papadahandi on 24.08.1942 needs a special mention for its great historical importance.

On 23-8-1943, at 5 PM , nearly 500 people of Congress followers gathered at Gurumaguda village under the leadership of MadhabPradhani. They decided to move to Dabugam to discuss the course of the Congress also with regard to Quit India Movement 24-8- 1942. On 24.08.1942 the Congress worker with the Congress flag on their heads chanting Ramadev started towards Papadahandi, 6kms from Gummaguda.

Near Gouti river of Chikilipadar another group of Freedom fighters of different villages jointed to the first batch of the congress worker. The crowed grew to thousands (as per Police record-2000 or more people) It was 2PM in the afternoon time when the crowd reached Papadahandi village.

Apprehending the attack of Papadahandi out Post by the Congress workers the ARP Force as well as the local Police of Papadahandi Out Post with the help of the Local anti-Congress people, got ready to face the crowd, but when they found that the crowed instead of attacking the outpost were marching towards Dabugoan; the Police to check the crowd and to dispense them posted themselves by the west end of the wooden bridge of the turi River at the 35 mile stone with weapons. When the Congress People tried to cross the wooden bridge and passed over the bridge, some disturbances were created .some Police personels were pushed drawn, seeing this the Drill Inspector P.K.Gouda, the sergent of the A.R.P. Koraput ordered for firing to quell the marching of the Congress workers . The continuous firing resulted in the death of 12 Congress workers on the spot.

The dead body of the 12 Congress workers laid down there from 2PM of 24-08-1942 to 10AM of 26.08.1942 unsafe for identification, till the arrival of P.K.Tripathy.SDO Nabarangpur return to Papadahandi from Kodinga. Another7 Congress men were succumbed to bullet injury and died in the Jail premises. Hundreds of the crowd jumped into the flooded river to save themselves from the firing, 108persons was arrested.

In this blood curdling atrocities, the savage and barbarous police force killed 19 Congress workers in this fateful event. The sons of the soil become the martyrs, who laid their valuable lives for the freedom of the mother land.

To commemorate the sacrifice of the barave martyrs, a “Saheed Minar” has been erected in by Govt of Odisha. In the year 1985 by the then Governor of Odisha, Bisambarnath Pandey inaugurated the Minar as homage to the following martyrs, whose names were written in the history of the Freedom fighting of the Nabarangpur Sub-Division. Today the place is declared as a sacred place for the tourist.

It is praise worthy of the Freedom Fighters who for a noble cause shed their Blood in the Turi River Massacre and counted a glorious death to adore the golden page of the history of the freedom struggle forever. These brave sons were:-

1 BastariaBhotra- Dolaiguda village

2 SonuBhotra Nandahandi

3 Bali Soura Tanda

4 BuduAmanatya Usuripadar

5 RatanRandhari Turunji

6 SukruMuduli Murlabai

7 KhagapatiAmanatya Kongra

8 Bharat Pujari Usuripadar

9 RamachandraAmanaty Phupugam

10 GhasiJani Nuagam

11 DinabandhuJani Nuagam

12 BuduAmanatya Burunji

13 JagannathAmanatya Patroput

14 SadebPujari Padeiguda

15 MangaruBhatra Umurigam

16 Aananda Gouda Dukhuguda

17 ParamanandaSoura Mantriguda

18 BhagabanBhota Mantriguda

19 Shyamsundar Gouda Soruguda

After the crack incident of 24.08.1942 another 90 Congress workers including Lakshmichandra Das, MadhavPradhani were arrested under sections.147,148,149,307 and 332 of IPC beings accused of criminal conspiracy against the Government of India for trial and punishment.

(Sources:

1.BiplabiLaxmichandra Das by Subash Chandra Mishra-2001

2.BinsaSatabdira Nabarangpur Gopabandhu Besoi-2014

3.KorapatiaraSwarajSangram by SatyaPriya Das-1972

4. Assembly question No.76 by Sri SadaSiva Tripathy-1946

5. Report of A.G.Bunn.Esq.ICS Dist Magistrate Koraput vide L No 739/46 cc 6. Confidential report No.1 of Prafulla Kumar Tripathy , Sub Divisional Magistrate, Nabarangpur submitted to District Magistrate, Koraput.)

ARCHAEOLOGICAL DESCRIPTION OF THE DISTRICT.

In the year 1940, a good deal of archaeological findings was explored in Pdagada, the capital city Pushari of the Nalas. it was a strong city of great antiquity and an early historic urban centre andfortified metropolis and a prosperous and busy centre of political and cultural activities.

Padagada is located at a distance of 23 KMs from UmerkoteTahsil of Nabarangpur district (via Dhodra village, now a G.P) and diametrically Padagada is situated from Umerkote at a distance of 12 KMs to its south.

Podagada is the port of the revenue village Bhandariguda, “ the hill fort pooped is called Podagada and it is at the centre of Bhandariguda. Ancient relics are found scaltered all around the hill fort and the revenue village Bhandariguda represents the ancient city of Puskari.” (Source: Dynastic history of NalasC.B.Patel 1990 PP 159)

The Puskari metropolis (township) was located on the left bank of the periperial river let “Singari” which joins the river BhaskelatNandapura. It is clearly evident from the Owens and traces of the Podagada, in its heyday Puskari metropolis seemed to spread between the twin river valleys of Singari and Nangi. Nangiriver flows 6 km to the north of Podaguda and joins the Bhaskel River near Dhodra village.

Both the riverlets Singari and Nangi are of pererial in nature have originated from thehilly and forest area of Podagadaplateau of 2000 feet height .thePodagada hill that contains the fort and the stone inscription of the Nala king Skandavarman rises to a height of 3043 feet.”The highest peak of the mountain is 19 degree 36 the range extends from 82 degree E to 82 degree16 N and 84 degree 14 inches (Source : Indian atlas Sheet No.63)

The Podagada hill fort (Pushkaridurga) with its stategie location resembles to a great extent to the yadava hill fort of Devagiri (now know as Daulatabad)

The antiquity of ancient Puskari (Podagada) is very remote. According to G. RamadasPusqari is identifical with the famous Puskartirth of Mahabharat (JBRSxxxx111-1-11 PP7-19)

Krishnamachaflu, who visitiedPodagada tract and discovered the rock inscription in the month of March and April 1922, has described the vast archaeological evidence of Puskari. I Epigraphic India P.153)

G.Ramdas, the archaeologist of Madras Presidency, who visited the Podagada area in the year 1943 remarked that, “ in almost all or the vicinity of every village in this progantha(Padagada area) are found the vesiges of ancient civilization that was rampant here in the obscure antiquity

Description of some of the monuments and relies of Podagada :-

The ruins of Podagada clearly indicates that there was a fort located in the hill but was devastated by te enemy by fire and sword, so the fort was called later on as Podagada (the burnt fort)

The fort was well planned .the entrance of the fort was from the southern side. A large number of brickbats, fragments of sculptured stones, burnt brickpillars, and doors lambs are seen. The brickmeasurd 8x4x2 and the door Jamb contain floral designs. There were a number of stops made of stones raising from the bottom of the entrance of the fort upwards to climbs the fort.

There was a stone inscription promulgated by the second son of BhavadettaVarman, the mighty SquandaVarman Maharaja, at a height of 40 feet from the ground level. Some brothers stone pillars lied on the steps to indicate that there was an arch representing and collaborate and massive gateway. There was a massive stone pillar standing near the entrance of the fort. This is called locally as “the Hatibndha Pakana (a stone pillar meant for laying the elephants). There was a second gateway to the fort proper.

It is evident that there was probably a temple ( as per the inscription). Another set of stare case is found that rose up to 20 feet to a flat surface. There were the evidences of pottery, brickbats, floors and tiles to indicate the existence of some residential complex.

A light of step are seen to the east down to the valley “ To the west and the North side of the fort, there was an extensive that surface with ruins of, pottery, tile, rammed floor brick and ruble wall (Dynastic History of Naas by CB Patel-1990)

The fort was built over the flat rock surface of the hill, in the north and west the flat rock surface ends in precipitous tall.

From the top of the hill one can see the surrounding area clearly for miles. The valley was plain and spreading miles together giving an impression of past war fields. A joint sign of dried moat encircling the hill fort is presently found, and the muat as being connected with the perennial water source of the Singaririvalet .there was a pond near the southern entrance of the fort.

In the north beyond the moat another mountain is there, which night have been used as the watch tower. To the east of Podagada hills the depression running straight lines clearly indicates the existence of the roads and streets. To the east of Podagada hill, between the moat and the Singari rivaled(the present village of Bhandariguda), the extensive ruins of a township is seen in the shape of terracedttasbashills, pottery, broken pieces of terracotta and wax boggles, beads of clay and semi precious stones.

To the west near the old fortification area, a broken brick, temple between two ancient tanks may be secure. According to Epigraphic Tudia-xx.IV.P.153, the temple right be representing to a Siva shrine. The temple is in uncomplete ruin .the study of the nearly sculptures and remnants confirms the existence of two chambered Siva Temple.

At present, the existed sanction of the temple we find a Barb image and a Lingam along with a brisabha. There are different icons are seen in front of the temple like Brisabha, Ganesh, worhipper couple memorial Sati Pillars. In one of the later pillars, a warrior riding the horse and piercing a slid animal in a long spear had been engraved.

“To the north of this place at a distance of I am there are another group of memorial pillars. Apart from these antiquities, the old residential evidence are forced like tiles, pottering terracotta fingers etc as a pure sign of the existence of a township .there are the signs of Vibars, agrahars, places in this locality.

The Podagada stone inscription of SkandaVarman throws a light on their period. The verses depicted in the inscription clearly envisages that the king SkandaVarman had resorted the city from his enemy repopulated the city once again, rebuilt the city with palatial buildings. Residential houses, fortified the place the as a religious King and a dewat Vishnav established the total points of Vishnu (Padamouja) , that may be a Vishnu vihar, to which a satra was also attached.

From the above archaeological evidences and epigraphic reference we can safely include that, Pdagada, the ancients seta of Nalas, the ancient Puskari was a bashing city of attendance and appolenceschichreprsentstheglocious rule of the Nala dynasty from 4th and 5th Century AD.

The Kesaribeda Township or the Kesalak Grama Apart from the capital city Pucker , the nails had established other town and village, among which Kesaribeda (recently the village baring the same name is situated 17 KMs from Umerkote Tahasils of Nabarangpur District (JBPS,xxxIII -1II-PP.7-19)

Keisalakagrama was donated by Maharaja Asthapati, the first son of Nala King Bhave data Varman, to durggirgga, Raviraryya and Ravidattaryya. The village can be indentified with the present Kesharbeda village.

Kesaribeda village is located at a distance of 25 KMs from to the north west of Puskari in Padagda near the source of river Tel.

In the year 19 , the archaeologist , G.Ramdas visited to find the spot of Kesaribeda charge had Charter had visibly depicts in his report that there were 5 mounds existed of rubbles and pieces of bricks and a tank of 100 yards square (JBRSxxxIII-I-II0P 7-19)

The tank still exists in Kesaribeda village in its arabaic look. There is a village named Andhri, near Asthapeti, who devoted this village.

A trial excavation was made of this Kesharibeda village by G. Ramdas and in one of the mounts he found a rectangular room of 8x4x and build of walls 2” thick of bricks (18x8x1) .the extent of wall measured about 26” floors of the room paved with bricks . A carved beautiful Vishnu image was also found from the structure.

Near the tank there was another mound excavation of which yielded a room with 2 feet high wall. Another two tanks were also found drag with the sculptured image of Siva and Vishnu. The looks of the images gives an impression of the Nula age and the images of Puskari. The ruin found in Kesaribeda village spreading over a big area with tank indicates that Kesaribeda was a small town having temples residential habitants.

Art and Architecture: the Podagada School of art and architecture-

The splendid arts and architecture that flourished during the Nula rules, the signs of which are seen in the rains of Podagadadesrveds mention. Elaborate system of fortification, religious, edifices, monasko institutions, plastic arts, and sculptoral art expressed in architecture as well as in cult icons are found in Podagada rains.

The tell fort of Podagada (4th/5th century AD), the terracotta arts, the panel of Siva Parvati, the Saiva and Vishnu shrine, the image of Bhairab, Ganesh, Brisav, the yakshya image, the satti pillars give us a clear picture of the art and architecture of Podagada of the Nabarangpur District, this old village.

So the Nabarangpur district is forwarded enough to have such archaeological evidence to show the glorious post of this district. So it is elect from the above analyses the Nalas ruled a vast stretches of Nabarangpur region for 200 years. The 4th and 5th of Koraput.1966: Govt. of Odisha)

Coins: A hoard of coins was discovered from the different places of Bastar-Koraput region bearing the evidence of the Nala period. In the 4th 5th century A.D. the Nalas established a strong kingdom, their capital being Puskari , the recent Padagada in the present Nabarangpur district . Their Kingdom was contiguous to estate of Bastar in MadhyaPradhesh Crow the Chatisgarh state) where 1939 is a hoard of 32 gold coins, belonging to king varahraj Sri Arthapati Raja and BhaladattaVarman was discovered. These are single die coins, having Nala legends or them. The larger sized coins merged from 20 to 21mm in diameter and weigh from 19 to 24.6grames .the smaller coins are of 15 mm n diameter a 75 gms in weight.(Source: Journal of Numismatics Society of India : 1489,No IP 20 ft) 70 Board of Reveal -6)

The scripts of the legends are crown as the box –headed type used between 5th and 7th century AD is Kalinga and South Kosal.

In 1957, a number of 28 gold coins was discovered from the reserve forest of Koding PS limits of Nabarangpur region (Former Koraput district) .these coins bore the legends of the Naga Kings of Chakrakote area from these coins it is learnt that originally chacharkote area was under the Nalas and subsequently went into hands of the Chirac Nags from about II the century. These coins were disc like ornaments and concavely shaped .these coins containing the name of the issuer and emblem (royalinsignsa) in the centre. The names of Poopaganda Bhairava, Sri Raja Bhusana and Sri Ranabhusana are inscribed in these coins belong to the southern type of charachlers of the 12th century AD.

Inscriptions:

Inscriptions of Nala dynasty (4th/5thcenturyA.D) 1. Kesribeda plates of Arthapati (Grant of Keslata grams to Bramhins) EP India ool-xxvii-p.1216) these plates were found in 1944 from the village Kesaribeda of Umerkote police station limits .Palaeographically these plates being to Gupta period (4th century AD). The Nala kings were the donor of these plates.

2. Rithapur plates of BhavadattaVraman:

(Epigraphic India VD.xix.pp.100-104)

Rithapas plates were found in the Amravati district of Mdhya Pradesh (Now in Chharisgarh) from these plates we know that the donor of these Ritbapur plates were the Noda Kings, who were ruling then over Koraput region (now Nabarangpur region) Paleographical the plates may be assigned to 5th century (rule of Naas)